Foundations of Niklas Luhmann's Thory of Social Systems by Alex Viskovatoff



4: Actor Theory

  →人類(human beings=人間的存在)の諸特性

上記の人類の諸特性は、"purely natural science point of view"から見た場合、"a highly complex nervous system"であると。そして、

"One can describe this nervous system completely in terms of the objective, third-person language of physical science. Now, what is interesting insofar as the cognitive and social sciences are concerned is that cannot be captured in this third-person language."


#give slips of paper to someone standing accross a counter
#hand her a plastic card and push some buttons
#sign a piece of paper

これらの所作は物理的現象としては何の共通点もないが、それぞれ "diffrent ways of what one calls making a purchase" である(p.496)。

"one has no choice but yo interpret the person's action, communicative and otherwise, with the goal of determining thebtruth value of the statement"(p.497)


"Except to someone with an extreme behaviorist orientation, the fact that one can observe fairly stable patterns of intentional behavior lead one to conclude that when studying human behavior, it is legitimate and indeed unavoidable to use a level of analysis additional to the one that deals with (objective)physical phenomena:the semanticlevel that comprise people's (subjective) beliefs and desires."


"However, unlike Luhmann, we see no reson why the acceptance of one level must mean the rejection of another."


Viskovatoffによれば、ルーマン=オートポイエシスは他のレヴェル、すなわち物理的レヴェルの切り捨てということになるらしいです。この後、物理的レヴェルにおいて最もよく説明が可能な行動パターンの例として、進化論でいうnatural selectionを挙げています。

"if one wants to give a complete explanation of any given behavior, even one stated in intentional terms, it is ultimately necessary to go down to the physical, neural level since it is the latter that gives rise to intentionality. Accordingly, in addition to the semantic, we also posit a second, physical level of analysis."(p.497)